Elements of botany or methodology by which to know about plants Elemens de botanique ou methode pour connoitre les plantes

In this work, Joseph Pitton de Tournefort (1656-1708), also known as "the Father of French Botany", classifies plants according to the shape of the flower into 22 "classes," and then further into "sections" and "genres" according to the shape of fruit, seed, and so on. Without any value judgments as to their utility or otherwise to humankind, Tournefort classified purely on the basis of the character of plants and established the outline of genuses.
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Frontispiece of the First Volume
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    How to View from the Classification Table
    • The classification table below shows Tournefort's classification in table form (source: Yojiro Kimura, "Shokubutsu bunrui taikei no rekishi" [The History of Botanical Classification Systems] in "Seibutsugakushi ronshu" [Essays on The History of Biology]).
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    Bibliography
    • Kimura, Youjiro. "Seibutsugakushi ronshu" (Yasaka Shobo, 1987)
    • Kimura, Youjiro. "Natsurarisuto no keifu" (Chuou Kouron Sha, Inc., 1983)
Classification table
Grasses and semishrubs
classe 1 Single flowers: gamopetalous / actinomorphic flowers Campaniforms Les Campaniformes
  section 1
    Mandragora Belladona
  section 2
    Lilium Convallium Polygonatum Ruscus Laurus Alexandrina 
 --> Ruscus 
  section 3
    Menyanthes Hydrophyllon Soldanella Convolvulus
    Scammonia 
 --> Convolvulus 
Tithymalus Rhabarbarum Oxys
  section 4
    Cotyledon Apocynum Periploca Asclepias
  section 5
    Malva Althaea Alcea Abutilon
    Ketmia Xylon
  section 6
    Bryonia Tamnus Sicyoides Momordica
    Cucumis Melo Pepo Melopepo
    Anguria Cucurbita
  section 7
    Campanula Medium Rapunculus
  section 8
    Rubia Aparine Gallium Cruciata
classe 2 Single flowers: gamopetalous / actinomorphic flowers Infundibuliforms Les Infundibuliformes
  section 1
    Quamoclit Gentiana Nicotiana Hyoscyamus
    Stramonium Pervinca Auricula Urfi
  section 2
    Androsace Primula Veris Verbasculum 
 --> Primula Veris 
Centaurium Minus
    Plantago Coronopus Psyllium
  section 3
    Jalap Rubeola Trachelium Rapuntium
    Valeriana Valerianella
  section 4
    Borrago Buglossum Asperugo Echium
    Pulmonaria Lithospermum Symphytum Consolida major 
 --> Symphytum 
    Cerinthe Heliotropium Cynoglossum Omphalodes
    Plumbago
  section 5
    Lysimachia Nummularia 
 --> Lysimachia 
Anagallis Samolus
    Glaux Veronica Chrysosplenium Polemonium
    Verbascum Blattaria
  section 6
    Solanum Lycopersicon Alkekengi Melongena
    Capsicum Nymphoides Cyclamen Moschatellina
  section 7
    Pimpinella
classe 3 Single flowers: gamopetalous / zygomorphic flowers Personates Les Personnees
  section 1
    Arum Dracunculus Arisarum
  section 2
    Aristolochia
  section 3
    Bignonia Digitalis Gratiola 
 --> Digitalis 
Sesamum 
 --> Digitalis 
    Scrophularia Pinguicula
  section 4
    Antirrhinum Linaria Cymbalaria 
 --> Linaria 
Elatine 
 --> Linaria 
    Asarina Pedicularis Melampyrum Euphrasia
    Polygala Adhatoda Orobanche
  section 5
    Acanthus
classe 4 Single flowers: gamopetalous / zygomorphic flowers Labiates Les Labiees
  section 1
    Phlomis Horminum Sclaraea Salvia
    Dracocephalon Cassida Lysimachia Galericulata 
 --> Cassida 
Scutellaria 
 --> Cassida 
    Brunella
  section 2
    Lamium Moldavica Ballote Galeopsis
    Stachys Cardiaca Leonurus Molucca
    Pseudodictamnus Mentha Pulegium Marrubiastrum
    Lycopus
  section 3
    Sideritis Marrubium Melissa Calamintha
    Hedera Terrestris 
 --> Calamintha 
Clinopodium Rosmarinus Thymus
    Serpyllum Satureia Thymbra Marum Mastich 
 --> Thymbra 
    Lavandula Origanum Dictamnus Creticus 
 --> Origanum 
Majorana
    Verbena Hyssopus Staechas Cataria
    Betonica Ocimum
  section 4
    Chamaedrys Marum Cortusi 
 --> Chamaedrys 
Scordium 
 --> Chamaedrys 
Polium
    Teucrium Chamaepytis Bugula Consolida media 
 --> Bugula 
classe 5 Single flowers: schizopetalous / actinomorphic flowers Cruciforms Les Cruciformes
  section 1
    Jonthlaspi Rapistrum Myagrum Isatis
    Crambe
  section 2
    Thlaspi Nasturtium Thlaspidium Cochlearia
    Raphanus Rusticanus 
 --> Cochlearia 
Lepidium Draba 
 --> Lepidium 
Iberis 
 --> Lepidium 
    Bursa Pastoris
  section 3
    Alysson Alyssoides Lunaria
  section 4
    Brassica Leucoium Hesperis Turritis
    Cardamine Dentaria Sisymbrium Eruca
    Sinapi Erysimum Rapa Napus
    Raphanus
  section 5
    Raphanistrum Hypecoon
  section 6
    Chelidonium Sinapistrum Epimedium
  section 7
    Erucago
  section 8
    Potamogeton
  section 9
    Herba Paris
classe 6 Single flowers: schizopetalous / actinomorphic flowers Rosaceous Les Rosacees
  section 1
    Amaranthus Portulaca
  section 2
    Papaver Argemone Anapodophyllon Opuntia
    Granadilla Murucuia
  section 3
    Mitella Alsine Myosotis Ros Solis
    Parnassia Gramen Parnassi 
 --> Parnassia 
Juncus Kali
    Telephium Helianthemum Chamaecistus 
 --> Helianthemum 
Androsaemum
  section 4
    Geum Sanicula Montana 
 --> Geum 
Saxifraga Salicaria
    Lysimachia Spicata 
 --> Salicaria 
Glaucium Papaver Corniculatum 
 --> Glaucium 
  section 5
    Hypericum Ascyrum Pyrola Damasonium
    Ruta Harmala Nigella Fabago
    Corchorus Melochia 
 --> Corchorus 
Cistus Nymphaea
    Nenufar 
 --> Nymphaea 
  section 6
    Capparis
  section 7
    Sedum Anacampseros Rhodia Radix 
 --> Anacampseros 
Ulmaria
    Barba Caprae Fagonia Tribulus Juncago
    Geranium Thalictrum Butomus Helleborus
    Veratrum Helleborus Albus 
 --> Veratrum 
Populago Paeonia
  section 8
    Anemone Pulsatilla Ranunculus Sagitta 
 --> Ranunculus 
    Filipendula Clematitis Caryophyllata Fragaria
    Quinquefolium Tormentilla Pentaphylloides
  section 9
    Christophoriana Phytolacca Aralia Asparagus
  section 10
    Cuminoides Circaea Agrimonia Agrimonoides
    Lysimachia Virginiana 
 --> Onagra 
Onagra Chamaenerion Lysimachia Siliquosa 
 --> Chamaenerion 
classe 7 Single flowers: schizopetalous / actinomorphic flowers Umbelliferae Les Ombelliferes
  section 1
    Ammi Apium Cicuta Carvi
    Phellandryum Bulbocastanum Daucus Sium
    Sisarum Tragoselinum Buplevrum Perfoliata 
 --> Buplevrum 
  section 2
    Faeniculum Seseli Massiliense 
 --> Faeniculum 
Meum Oenanthe
    Angelica Astrantia Chaerophyllum Myrrhis
  section 3
    Smyrnium Coriandrum
  section 4
    Imperatoria Crithmum Anethum Peucedanum
  section 5
    Oreoselinum Thysselinum Pastinaca Sphondylium
    Tordylium Ferula Thapsia
  section 6
    Cicutaria Caucalis Ligusticum Laserpitium
    Libanotis 
 --> Laserpitium 
  section 7
    Cachrys
  section 8
    Scandix
  section 9
    Sanicula Eryngium Hydrocotyle
classe 8 Single flowers: schizopetalous / actinomorphic flowers Caryophylles Les Caryophyllees
  section 1
    Caryophyllus Lychnis Saponaria 
 --> Lychnis 
Cucubalus
    Linum
  section 2
    Statice Limonium
classe 9 Single flowers: schizopetalous / actinomorphic flowers Liliaceous Les Liliacees
  section 1
    Asphodelus Liliasphodelus Hyacinthus Muscari
    Colchicum
  section 2
    Crocus Narcissus Iris Xiphion
    Sisyrinchium Gladiolus Aloe Cannacorus
    Arundo Indica 
 --> Cannacorus 
  section 3
    Ephemerum
  section 4
    Phalangium Liliastrum Lilium Lilio-Hyacinthus
    Corona Imperialis Tulipa Fritillaria Dens Canis
    Ornithogalum Scilla 
 --> Ornithogalum 
Porrum Cepa
    Allium
  section 5
    Lilio-Narcissus Narcissoleucoium Bermudiana
classe 10 Single flowers: schizopetalous / zygomorphic flowers Leguminous Les Leguminoses
  section 1
    Glycyrrhiza Cicer Lens Onobrychis
    Vulneraria Dorycnium
  section 2
    Faba Lupinus Orobus Pisum
    Lathyrus Clymenum Ochrus Vicia
    Ervum Galega Astragaloides Aphaca
  section 3
    Securidaca Ornithopodium Ferrum Equinum Hedysarum
    Scorpioides
  section 4
    Lotus Trifolium Quadrifolium 
 --> Trifolium 
Melilotus
    Anonis Faenumgraecum Medica Medicago
    Phaseolus
  section 5
    Astragalus Tragacantha Pelecinus
classe 11 Single flowers: schizopetalous / zygomorphic flowers Amorphous Les Anomales
  section 1
    Balsamina Viola Fumaria Capnoides
    Reseda
  section 2
    Sesamoides
  section 1
    Luteola
  section 2
    Aconitum Napellus 
 --> Aconitum 
Delphinium Consolida regalis 
 --> Delphinium 
    Staphisagria 
 --> Delphinium 
Aquilegia Fraxinella Cardamindum
    Melianthus Cor-Indum
  section 3
    Orchis Helleborine Calceolus Limondorum
    Ophris Nidus Avis
classe 12 Aggregate flowers Flosculous Les Flosculeuses
  section 1
    Xanthium Ambrosia Gnaphalodes
  section 2
    Carduus Cinara Jacea Cyanus
    Cirsium Centaurium Majus Lappa Cnicus
    Carthamus
  section 3
    Petasites Cacalia Elichrysum Staechas Citrina 
 --> Elychrysum 
    Filago Conyza Eupatorium Senecio
  section 4
    Absinthium Abrotanum Artemisia Santolina
    Gnaphalium Tanacetum Bidens Cannabina 
 --> Bidens 
  section 5
    Echinopus
  section 6
    Scabiosa Succisa 
 --> Scabiosa 
Dipsacus Globularia
    Alypum 
 --> Globularia 
classe 13 Aggregate flowers Semiflosculous Les Semiflosculeuses
  section 1
    Dens Leonis Hieracium Pilosella Lactuca
    Sonchus Chondrilla Zacintha Scorzonera
    Tragopogon
  section 2
    Catanance Hedypnois Cichorium Endivia 
 --> Cichorium 
    Intybus 
 --> Cichorium 
Lampsana Rhagadiolus Scolymus
classe 14 Aggregate flowers Ligulate Les Radiees
  section 1
    Aster Tripolium 
 --> Aster 
Helenium Virga Aurea
    Jacobaea Tussilago Doronicum
  section 2
    Tagetes Corona Solis
  section 3
    Bellis Chrysanthemum Leucanthemum Matricaria
    Chamaemelum Cotula Buphtalmum Millefolium
    Ptarmica Asteriscus
  section 4
    Caltha
  section 5
    Xeranthemum Carlina
classe 15 Apetalous flowers Achlamydeous Les Apetalees
  section 1
    Asarum Beta
  section 2
    Acetosa Lapathum Atriplex Chenopodium
    Borrys 
 --> Chenopodium 
Blitum Herniaria Paronychia
    Alchimilla Parietaria Persicaria Polygonum
    Fagopyrum Bistorta
  section 3
    Triticum Secale Hordeum Oryza
    Avena Milium Panicum Gramen
    Arundo
  section 4
    Cyperus Scirpus
  section 5
    Cyperoides Typha Sparganium Mays
    Lachryma Job Ricinus
  section 6
    Equisetum Spinacia Mercurialis Phyllon 
 --> Mercurialis 
    Urtica Cannabis Lupulus
classe 16 Ananthous / fructification Ferny
  section 1
    Filix Lonchitis Polytricum 
 --> Trichomanes 
Trichomanes
    Polypodium Filicula Ruta Muraria Adiantum
    Asplenium Lingua Cervina Hemionitis
  section 2
    Osmunda Ophioglossum Lichen
classe 17 Ananthous / non-fructification Cryptogamic
  section 1
    Muscus Fungus Boletus Agaricus
    Lycoperdon Coralloides Tubera
  section 2
    Fucus Alga Acetabulum Corallina
    Corallum Madrepora Lithophyton Tubularia
    Spongia Eschara Alcyonium
Trees or shrubs
classe 18 Apetalous flowers Achlamydeous Les Apetalees
  section 1
    Fraxinus Siliqua
  section 2
    Buxus Empetrum
  section 3
    Terebinthus Pistacia 
 --> Terebinthus 
Lentiscus
classe 19 Aggregate flowers Amentaceous Les Amentacees
  section 1
    Nux Corylus Carpinus
  section 2
    Quercus Ilex Suber Fagus
    Castanca
  section 3
    Abies Picea 
 --> Abies 
Pinus Larix
    Thuya Cupressus Alnus Betula
  section 4
    Cedrus Juniperus Taxus Morus
  section 5
    Platanus
  section 6
    Salix Populus
classe 20 Single flowers: gamopetalous / actinomorphic flowers Gamopetalous (Monopetalous) Les Monopetalees
  section 1
    Rhamnus Thymelaea Laureola 
 --> Thymelaea 
Sanamunda 
 --> Thymelaea 
    Alaternus Phillyrea Ligustrum Laurus
    Jasminum Arbutus
  section 2
    Styrax Olea Uva Ursi Aquifolium
    Guaiacana
  section 3
    Ulmus
  section 4
    Lilac Erica Vitex Chamaerhododendros
  section 5
    Nerion Acacia Mimosa
  section 6
    Sambucus Opulus Viburnum Tinus
    Vitis Idaea Caprifolium Periclymenum Chamaecerasus
    Xylosteon
  section 7
    Viscum
classe 21 Single flowers: polypetalous / actinomorphic flowers Schizopetalous (Polypetalous) Les Polypetalees
  section 1
    Cotinus Toxicodendron Rhus Tilia
    Hippocastanum
  section 2
    Celtis Frangula Hedera Vitis
    Berberis Rubus
  section 3
    Acer Staphylodendron Paliurus Azedarac
    Evonymus
  section 4
    Spiraea Syringa
  section 5
    Senna Poinciana Cassia
  section 6
    Aurantium Citreum Limon
  section 7
    Prunus Armeniaca Persica Cerasus
    Amygdalus Ziziphus Laurocerasus
  section 8
    Pyrus Cydonia Sorbus Malus
    Punica Rosa Grossularia Ribes 
 --> Grossularia 
    Myrtus
  section 9
    Cornus Mespilus
classe 22 Single flowers: polypetalous / zygomorphic flowers Schizopetalous (Polypetalous), papilionaceous Les Papillionacees
  section 1
    Genista Crotalaria Spartium Genista-Spartium
    Erinacea Genistella Siliquastrum
  section 2
    Anagyris Cytisus Cytiso-Genista
  section 3
    Pseudoacacia Colutea Emerus Coronilla
    Barba Jovis
appendix
    Ficus Smilax Chamaelea Ageratum
    Cuscuta Salicornia Ephedra

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